高中英语完形填空知识点

时间:2019-01-04 英语知识 我要投稿

  知识点总结

  做完形填空题是基于整个语篇的理解,要求学生掌握相当数量的词汇、句型、词组和一定的阅读理解能力和词语 搭配能力,综合运用语言知识的能力。由此可见完形填空题也是阅读题,是一种难度较大的题型。是对考生阅读理解和语言综合运用能力的测试。

  完形填空的题型特色

  1、填空类型分析

  完形填空题的词项有两大类:实词和虚词。实词指:动词、名词、形容词、副词、代词和数词; 虚词指:介词及介词短语、连词和冠词。还有一种划分是把完形填空题分为语义和动能两大类,如果该题型要求考生填入实词,这种填空题为语义类;如果该题型要 求考生填入虚词,这种填空题为功能类。

  2、短文长度分析

  从短文的长度来看,近10年高考中,每篇短文平均为221个单词。

  3、间隔设计分析

  完形填空题的难易取决于两个因素:1)所取的短文本身所含的生词量、语法、句子结构、句子长短、文化背景等; 2)空格之间的长度,空格与空格之间的长度越长,填空难度就越小,长度越小难度就越大。

  4、成分与结构分析

  从完形填空所填入的句子成分来看,以谓语、定语、宾语、状语居多,还有表语、及其他成分,以及非谓语动词、习惯搭配、固定词组、介词短语和各种句型等。从结构上分析,完形填空所提供的四个选项,如果单从本句的结构来看,四个选项都可以填入空 格,但从意义上看只有一个答案。

  常见考法

  我们做完形填空题的最后一道工序就是“复读全文 验证答案”。 题目做完以后,我们要把‘完形’后的全文再读一遍,看看是否‘完义’。此外,还要从语法上看句子是否主谓一致,特别要注意非谓语动词是否与主语一致,时态是否前后呼应,检查动宾搭配,动 词、形容词、名词与介词的搭配是否合理,如果发现问题,则要根据文章的主题思想、本句、本段和全文的上下文与逻辑关系,重新选择选项;如果个别选项实在没 有把握,那就根据感觉猜一个,但决不能放弃。总之,我们要从完形和完义、语法和语义等方面进行推敲,修正错误,弥补疏漏,从而使自己的答案尽可能地接近或 达到完美。

  误区提醒

  Many people find that regular physical activity gives them an unexpected benefit. They sleep better and wake up feeling more 61(refreshed) , in part due to increased amounts of deep sleep. Deep sleep may play a role in the body restoring itself 62(physically) , as opposed to REM(rapid eye movement) or dreaming sleep. Researchers have found that physical exercise, especially 63(done) in the afternoon or early evening, produces more 64(deep sleep) early in the night. 65(Exercise)can also help you get a better night’s sleep in a number of indirect ways. The relaxation and tiredness 66(caused) by exercise can improve sleep.

  Exercise encourages weight loss and also may 67(relieve) depression. Exercising later in the day can also help delay the 68(nighttime) drop in your body’s temperature. The 69(benefits) of exercise are especially important for older people, 70(since) exercise has been shown to increase the amount of sleep senior adults get in a night and reduce the time it takes to fall asleep. But be sure you finish exercising at least 4 hours before bedtime---working out later than that could leave you too excited to fall asleep easily.

  61. a. conscious b. peaceful c. effective d. refreshed

  62. a. physically b. mentally c. emotionally d. regularly

  63. a. made b. done c. functioned d. conducted

  64. a. night’s sleep b. dreaming sleep c. deep sleep d. REM

  65. a. Exercise b. Dreams c. Researchers d. Doctors

  66. a. recovered b. strengthened c. caused d. reduced

  67. a. increase b. relieve c. release d. arouse

  68. a. nighttime b. daytime c. dinnertime d. lifetime

  69. a. disadvantages b. benefits c. ways d. places

  70. a. yet b. if c. when d. since

  解析: 浏览一下本篇短文,我们就知道这篇短文的主题句就是:Many people find that regular physical activity gives them an unexpected benefit. 因此我们就知道这篇文章是谈论锻炼身体方面的。下文的填空就是关于这一方面的。我们在上文已经谈到“完形必须服从完义,单句必须服从段落,段落必须服从全 文,局部必须服从全局”的解题原则。在这一篇短文的第一段,我们从physical activity和in the body得到启示,62题应该填a. physically;从第二句和第三句的deep sleep得到启示,64题应填c. deep sleep; 62与64题的做法很典型地体现了“完形必须服从完义”,“单句必须服从段落”的原则。而61与63题则根据“瞻前顾后,寻找关联”的原则就可以解出,一个人如果sleep better,那么醒过来就会感到refreshed, 我们do exercise而不是made, functioned,或conducted exercise。我们在做65题时,可以从第一段和第三段得到启示,第一段提到两处‘physical activity’ 和‘physical exercise’, 而第三段有5处exercise或exercising, 结合第二段的意义,就不难看出65题应填a. Exercise. 再看69题,从单句的语法上看,四个选项都可以填进去,从单句的意义上看,benefits, ways, places三个选项都可以填进去,但从全文来看,特别是文章第一句的‘regular physical activity gives them an unexpected benefit’,就只有b. benefits填进去才对,而且是唯一的答案。65题和69题的做法体现了“完形必须服从完义”,“段落必须服从全文,局部必须服从全局”的原则

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